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Vandemoortele R&D

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Abstract Bachelor Project 2017-2018: Development of analytical methods for the assessment of laminating properties of margarines

To make puff pastry, it is important that the margarine has the right functionality. This means that the margarine is preferably not too hard or too soft, maintains its plasticity and results in the desired height and shape of the baked pastry. The functionality of a bakery margarine is assessed by manual kneading and is scored on different parameters such as initial hardness, plasticity and hardness after kneading. However, this method is rather subjective and requires regular calibration. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to develop a way to measure and hopefully predict the functionality of a margarine in puff pastry using standardized instrumental measurements.

Commercially available bakery margarines were characterized by different analytical tools and laminated in a puff pastry dough. Using a multiple extrusion cell, connected to the TA.XTplus Texture Analyser, the worksoftening of the margarine was measured. This method and especially the data processing was not yet optimal and still needed further research. To analyze and measure the layered structure of the unbaked puff pastry using the microscope, a quantitative method needed to be developed.

In addition, the initial hardness was measured with the TA.XTplus Texture Analyser using the cone measuring probe. The solid fat content and the composition of fatty acids were also measured using pulse nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, respectively. These analyses provided extra information that could help to make connections between the properties of the margarine and the results of the kneading and baking trials. 

The method and data processing of the worksoftening measurements have been optimized. The relative standard deviations have gone down and the parameters that define the worksoftening are shown to correlate with the puff height. A quantitative method to measure the fat and dough layers of the unbaked puff pastry has been established and is shown to be repeatable. The most important information lies in the standard deviations of the fat layers. These standard deviations seem to correlate with the parameters of the worksoftening and the puff height. Other correlations between the results have been found, but it is necessary to measure a wider range of different margarines to further analyze these connections.

Abstract bachelorproef 2016-2017Method development for the study of isothermal fat crystallization of palm-based fats

Nowadays Vandemoortele customers desire functional products with lower saturated fats. The functionality of fat based food products are mainly determined by the crystallization of fats. However, up to now an industrial method that offers the potential to study crystallization of fats under shear conditions is still lacking. To this end a study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics and crystallization properties of different palm based fats, commonly used in plastic margarins in puff pastry products. Particularly the interesterification of palm fractions and the influence of external factors on the crystallization behaviour were studied.

First a physicochemical characterization of the different fats was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography and liquid chromatography. In this way, the chemical composition in relation to its crystallization properties can be compared.

The crystallization behaviour of fats was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheology. DSC measures exo- and endothermic differences in fats, which represents the polymorphic changes in their crystallization behaviour. Using DSC, the isothermal crystallization kinetics of the different palm fats were studied at twenty degrees. Using oscillatory rheology, information of both primary crystallization and microstructural crystal network development can be obtained. The aim of applying a rheology method was to understand the influence of processing parameters on the network formation of crystallized fats.

Data provided by this research shows that interesterification causes a rearrangement of fatty acids in triglycerides. Moreover, the interesterification effect is fat-dependent and varies on the basic composition which fats consist of. Rheology and DSC have both advantages and limitations, which makes them complementary to assess the crystallization development. In the future, it will be important to determine the qualities of fat blends in order to improve the processing parameters of plastic margarines.

 
Abstract bachelorproef 2015-2016Determination of lecithin in margarine and spreads 
Wegens confidentialiteit kan de samenvatting niet gepubliceerd worden.
 
Samenvatting eindwerk 2013-2014:
Wegens confidentialiteit kan de samenvatting niet gepubliceerd worden.
 
Samenvatting eindwerk 2011-2012: Kwantitatieve analyse van mineralen in water-olie emulsies; margarine en smeersels
Margarines en smeersels zijn voorbeelden van water-in-olie emulsies. Om deze onnatuurlijke samenstelling van twee niet mengbare vloeistoffen in stand te houden, worden tijdens de fabricage van deze producten, emulgatoren toegevoegd. Mineralen, die sinds kort aan margarines en smeersels worden toegevoegd, zijn verder onder te verdelen in macro- en sporenelementen. Ze zijn essentieel voor de groei, ontwikkeling en herstel van het lichaam. De onderzochte sporenelementen in dit eindwerk zijn zink, selenium en jood. Het macro-element natrium wordt eveneens bepaald. 
De opzet van dit project is om een analysemethode te optimaliseren waarbij de gedoseerde hoeveelheden van deze mineralen geanalyseerd kunnen worden. Voor zink en natrium wordt gewerkt op eindproducten waarbij een droge destructiemethode en een extractie met aangezuurd water met elkaar vergeleken worden. De sporenelementen zink, selenium en jood worden getest op mineraalmixen. De analyse van de mineralen gebeurt voornamelijk via inductief gekoppeld plasma optische emissie spectrometrie (ICP OES). Enkele metingen werden uitgevoerd met behulp van high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
De droge destructiemethode voor het bepalen van het zinkgehalte leverde geen reproduceerbare en betrouwbare resultaten op. De extractie met aangezuurd water daarentegen wel. Behalve voor light stalen, was het mogelijk om de gedoseerde hoeveelheid zink in emulsies ook effectief te meten. De concentraties van dit mineraal, gemeten in mineraalmixen, waren echter steeds te laag. Voor selenium werden systematisch te hoge concentraties geanalyseerd. Voor het meten van joodgehaltes werd HPLC toegepast. In tegenstelling tot ICP kunnen de joodconcentraties hier gemeten, wel correct bepaald worden. Beide extractiemethoden om het natriumgehalte te bepalen, resulteerden in weinig betrouwbare metingen. Wel kon hierbij geconstateerd worden dat er bij de aanmaak en mogelijk ook tijdens het analyseproces van emulsies, een natriumcontaminatie optreedt.
Verder onderzoek zal worden uitgevoerd op het meten van natriumgehaltes. Hierbij zal eerst en vooral de contaminatie opgespoord moeten worden vooraleer verder onderzoek kan gebeuren. De mineraalgehaltes in de mineraalmixen worden verder opgevolgd. Het toegevoegde zink in emulsies kan in de toekomst bepaald worden met behulp van de extractiemethode met aangezuurd water.

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Prins Albertlaan 79
8870 Izegem
Belgium

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Traineeship supervisor
Lieselot Delabie
Traineeship supervisor
Bart Heyman
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